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List of Messier objects

The Messier objects are a set of astronomical objects catalogued by the French astronomer Charles Messier in his "Catalogue des Nébuleuses et des Amas d'Étoiles" ("Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters"), originally published in 1771, with the last addition (based on Messier's observations) made in 1966.

Because Messier was interested in finding only comets, he created a list of non-comet objects that frustrated his hunt for them. The compilation of this list, in collaboration with his assistant Pierre Méchain, is known as the Messier catalogue. This catalogue of objects is one of the most famous lists of astronomical objects, and many Messier objects are still referenced by their Messier number.

The first edition included 45 objects, with Messier's final list totaling 104 objects. However, Messier 102 was not reported correctly, bringing the total to 102 objects. Other astronomers, using side notes in Messier's texts, eventually filled out the list to 110 objects.

Messier Number NGC/IC Number Common Name Picture Object Type Distance (kly) Constellation Apparent Magnitude Imaged
M 1 NGC 1952 Crab Nebula m1 Supernova remnant 6.3 Taurus 9.0 No
M 2 NGC 7089 m2 Cluster, globular 36 Aquarius 7.5 No
M 3 NGC 5272 Cluster, globular 31 Canes Venatici 7.0 No
M 4 NGC 6121 Cluster, globular 7 Scorpius 7.5 No
M 5 NGC 5904 Cluster, globular 23 Serpens 7.0 No
M 6 NGC 6405 Butterfly Cluster Cluster, open 2 Scorpius 4.5 No
M 7 NGC 6475 Ptolemy Cluster Cluster, open 1 Scorpius 3.5 No
M 8 NGC 6523 Lagoon Nebula Nebula with cluster 6.5 Sagittarius 6.0 No
M 9 NGC 6333 Cluster, globular 26 Ophiuchus 9.0 No
M 10 NGC 6254 Cluster, globular 13 Ophiuchus 7.5 No
M 11 NGC 6705 Wild Duck Cluster Cluster, open 6 Scutum 7.0 No
M 12 NGC 6218 Cluster, globular 18 Ophiuchus 8.0 No
M 13 NGC 6205 Great Globular Cluster in Hercules Cluster, globular 22 Hercules 5.8 Yes
M 14 NGC 6402 Cluster, globular 27 Ophiuchus 9.5 No
M 15 NGC 7078 Cluster, globular 33 Pegasus 7.5 No
M 16 NGC 6611 Eagle Nebula Nebula, H II region with cluster 7 Serpens 6.5 No
M 17 NGC 6618 Omega, Swan, Horseshoe, or Lobster Nebula Nebula, H II region with cluster 5 Sagittarius 6.0 No
M 18 NGC 6613 Cluster, open 6 Sagittarius 8.0 No
M 19 NGC 6273 Cluster, globular 27 Ophiuchus 8.5 No
M 20 NGC 6514 Trifid Nebula Nebula, H II region with cluster 5.2 Sagittarius 6.3 No
M 21 NGC 6531 Cluster, open 3 Sagittarius 7.0 No
M 22 NGC 6656 Sagittarius Cluster Cluster, globular 10 Sagittarius 5.1 No
M 23 NGC 6494   Cluster, open 4.5 Sagittarius 6.0 No
M 24 IC 4715 Sagittarius Star Cloud Milky Way star cloud 10 Sagittarius 4.6 No
M 25 IC 4725   Cluster, open 2 Sagittarius 4.9 No
M 26 NGC 6694   Cluster, open 5 Scutum 9.5 No
M 27 NGC 6853 Dumbbell Nebula Nebula, planetary 1.25 Vulpecula 7.5 Yes
M 28 NGC 6626   Cluster, globular 18 Sagittarius 8.5 No
M 29 NGC 6913   Cluster, open 7.2 Cygnus 9.0 No
M 30 NGC 7099   Cluster, globular 25 Capricornus 8.5 No
M 31 NGC 224 Andromeda Galaxy Galaxy, spiral 2,500 Andromeda 3.4 Yes
M 32 NGC 221   Galaxy, dwarf elliptical 2,900 Andromeda 10.0 Yes
M 33 NGC 598 Triangulum Galaxy Galaxy, spiral 2,810 Triangulum 5.7 No
M 34 NGC 1039   Cluster, open 1.4 Perseus 6.0 No
M 35 NGC 2168   Cluster, open 2.8 Gemini 5.5 No
M 36 NGC 1960   Cluster, open 4.1 Auriga 6.5 No
M 37 NGC 2099   Cluster, open 4.6 Auriga 6.0 No
M 38 NGC 1912   Cluster, open 4.2 Auriga 7.0 No
M 39 NGC 7092   Cluster, open 0.8 Cygnus 5.5 No
M 40   Winnecke 4 Double star WNC4 0.5 Ursa Major 9.0 No
M 41 NGC 2287   Cluster, open 2.3 Canis Major 4.5 No
M 42 NGC 1976 Orion Nebula Nebula, H II region 1.6 Orion 4.0 Yes
M 43 NGC 1982 De Mairan's Nebula Nebula, H II region (part of the Orion Nebula) 1.6 Orion 7.0 No
M 44 NGC 2632 Beehive Cluster Cluster, open 0.6 Cancer 3.7 No
M 45   Pleiades Cluster, open 0.4 Taurus 1.6 Yes
M 46 NGC 2437   Cluster, open 5.4 Puppis 6.5 No
M 47 NGC 2422   Cluster, open 1.6 Puppis 4.5 No
M 48 NGC 2548   Cluster, open 1.5 Hydra 5.5 No
M 49 NGC 4472   Galaxy, elliptical 60,000 Virgo 10.0 No
M 50 NGC 2323   Cluster, open 3 Monoceros 7.0 No
M 51 NGC 5194, NGC 5195 Whirlpool Galaxy Galaxy, spiral 37,000 Canes Venatici 8.4 Yes
M 52 NGC 7654   Cluster, open 7 Cassiopeia 8.0 No
M 53 NGC 5024   Cluster, globular 56 Coma Berenices 8.5 No
M 54 NGC 6715   Cluster, globular 83 Sagittarius 8.5 No
M 55 NGC 6809   Cluster, globular 17 Sagittarius 7.0 No
M 56 NGC 6779   Cluster, globular 32 Lyra 9.5 No
M 57 NGC 6720 Ring Nebula Nebula, planetary 2.3 Lyra 8.8 Yes
M 58 NGC 4579   Galaxy, barred spiral 60,000 Virgo 11.0 No
M 59 NGC 4621   Galaxy, elliptical 60,000 Virgo 11.5 No
M 60 NGC 4649   Galaxy, elliptical 60,000 Virgo 10.5 No
M 61 NGC 4303   Galaxy, spiral 60,000 Virgo 10.5 No
M 62 NGC 6266   Cluster, globular 22 Ophiuchus 8.0 No
M 63 NGC 5055 Sunflower Galaxy Galaxy, spiral 37,000 Canes Venatici 8.5 Yes
M 64 NGC 4826 Black Eye Galaxy Galaxy, spiral 12,000 Coma Berenices 9.0 No
M 65 NGC 3623 Leo Triplet Galaxy, barred spiral 35,000 Leo 10.5 Yes
M 66 NGC 3627 Leo Triplet Galaxy, barred spiral 35,000 Leo 10.0 Yes
M 67 NGC 2682   Cluster, open 2.25 Cancer 7.5 No
M 68 NGC 4590   Cluster, globular 32 Hydra 9.0 No
M 69 NGC 6637   Cluster, globular 25 Sagittarius 9.0 No
M 70 NGC 6681   Cluster, globular 28 Sagittarius 9.0 No
M 71 NGC 6838   Cluster, globular 12 Sagitta 8.5 No
M 72 NGC 6981   Cluster, globular 53 Aquarius 10.0 No
M 73 NGC 6994   Asterism   Aquarius 9.0 No
M 74 NGC 628   Galaxy, spiral 35,000 Pisces 10.5 No
M 75 NGC 6864   Cluster, globular 58 Sagittarius 9.5 No
M 76 NGC 650, NGC 651 Little Dumbbell Nebula Nebula, planetary 3.4 Perseus 10.1 No
M 77 NGC 1068 Cetus A Galaxy, spiral 60,000 Cetus 10.5 No
M 78 NGC 2068   Nebula, diffuse 1.6 Orion 8.0 No
M 79 NGC 1904   Cluster, globular 40 Lepus 8.5 No
M 80 NGC 6093   Cluster, globular 27 Scorpius 8.5 No
M 81 NGC 3031 Bode's Galaxy Galaxy, spiral 12,000 Ursa Major 6.9 Yes
M 82 NGC 3034 Cigar Galaxy Galaxy, starburst 11,000 Ursa Major 9.5 Yes
M 83 NGC 5236 Southern Pinwheel Galaxy Galaxy, barred spiral 10,000 Hydra 8.5 No
M 84 NGC 4374   Galaxy, lenticular 60,000 Virgo 11.0 No
M 85 NGC 4382   Galaxy, lenticular 60,000 Coma Berenices 10.5 No
M 86 NGC 4406   Galaxy, lenticular 60,000 Virgo 11.0 No
M 87 NGC 4486 Virgo A Galaxy, elliptical 60,000 Virgo 11.0 No
M 88 NGC 4501   Galaxy, spiral 60,000 Coma Berenices 11.0 No
M 89 NGC 4552   Galaxy, elliptical 60,000 Virgo 11.5 No
M 90 NGC 4569   Galaxy, spiral 60,000 Virgo 11.0 No
M 91 NGC 4548   Galaxy, barred spiral 60,000 Coma Berenices 11.0 No
M 92 NGC 6341   Cluster, globular 26 Hercules 7.5 No
M 93 NGC 2447   Cluster, open 4.5 Puppis 6.5 No
M 94 NGC 4736   Galaxy, spiral 15,00 Canes Venatici 9.5 No
M 95 NGC 3351   Galaxy, barred spiral 38,000 Leo 11.0 No
M 96 NGC 3368   Galaxy, spiral 38,000 Leo 10.5 No
M 97 NGC 3587 Owl Nebula Nebula, planetary 2.6 Ursa Major 9.9 Yes
M 98 NGC 4192   Galaxy, spiral 60,000 Coma Berenices 11.0 No
M 99 NGC 4254   Galaxy, spiral 60,000 Coma Berenices 10.5 No
M 100 NGC 4321   Galaxy, spiral 60,000 Coma Berenices 10.5 No
M 101 NGC 5457 Pinwheel Galaxy Galaxy, spiral 27,000 Ursa Major 7.9 Yes
M 102 (Not conclusively identified)           No
M 103 NGC 581   Cluster, open 8 Cassiopeia 7.0 No
M 104 NGC 4594 Sombrero Galaxy Galaxy, spiral 50,000 Virgo 9.5 No
M 105 NGC 3379   Galaxy, elliptical 38,000 Leo 11.0 No
M 106 NGC 4258   Galaxy, spiral 25,000 Canes Venatici 9.5 No
M 107 NGC 6171   Cluster, globular 20 Ophiuchus 10.0 No
M 108 NGC 3556   Galaxy, spiral 45,000 Ursa Major 11.0 No
M 109 NGC 3992   Galaxy, barred spiral 55,000 Ursa Major 11.0 No
M 110 NGC 205   Galaxy, dwarf elliptical 2,200 Andromeda 10.0 No



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